User Tools

Site Tools


Sidebar

Sidebar

social_layer

The Social Layer

Home || Openness || Layers || Physical Layer | Logical Layer | Content Layer | Social Layer || References



People in virtual communities use words on screens to exchange pleasantries 
and argue, engage in intellectual discourse, conduct commerce, exchange 
knowledge, share emotional support, make plans, brainstorm, gossip, feud, 
fall in love, find friends and lose them, play games, flirt, create a little 
high art and a lot of idle talk. People in virtual communities do just about 
everything people do in real life, but we leave our bodies behind. You can't 
kiss anybody and nobody can punch you in the nose, but a lot can happen 
within those boundaries.


The Social Layer consists of the new behaviours and interactions between people that are enabled as a result of the underlying technologies. This layer could be considered to happen 'offline' as well as 'online'.

In 1998, venture capitalist John Doerr described what he considered to be 'the single greatest creation of wealth in the history of the planet' (Ryan, 2010, p. 123) as he looked at the then ever-expanding financial peaks of the 'dot com bubble' in the first wave of commercialisation of the Internet. In 2006, Time magazine famously put an image of a computer with a reflective screen on their front cover and declared 'You' as 'Person Of The Year', due to what they described as 'community and collaboration on a scale never seen before resulting from the rise of 'Web 2.0' and 'social media'. In 2010, the organisation Wikileaks published video footage and tens of thousands of documents from the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, claiming to operate under the slogan 'We open governments'. The role of social media platforms such as Twitter, Facebook and YouTube were widely cited and analysed in the unrest and revolutions that characterised what came to become known as 'the Arab Spring'.

The subject of how people are enabled to act with the addition of certain technologies cannot be covered in a single paragraph. What these four examples illustrate however, are some of the actions, behaviours and social changes enabled as a result of the openness of the Internet. The openness to build a business, even in the absence of a business model. The openness to build mediated connections on areas of common interest with strangers all over the world. The openness to expose or uncover corruption or violence before a global audience. The openness to organise in the face of oppression. It is this openness that also requires new forms of literacy or even virtual citizenship, as well as erosions in the notion of privacy.

Back to Top

Openness at the Social Layer

Following are ten recommendations for maintaining openness at the Social Layer, including for individuals, educationalists, governments and international bodies, and digital rights groups operating at a social level:

  1. Endorse a 'bill of rights' for broadband users (Lessig, 2001)
  2. Support, fund and promote programmes of digital literacy and digital involvement for excluded groups Fuchs, year
  3. Foster the concept of 'netizenship' as a vital notion of what it means to go online (Zittrain, 2008)
  4. Enable and encourage universities to take leadership roles in the Internet's future (Zittrain, 2008)
  5. Enable individuals to declare 'reputation bankruptcy' on 'walled garden' social sites (Zittrain, 2008)
  6. Teach children about the participatory nature of the Internet via educational activities such as publishing writing on blogs, critical reading of online sources and rewriting Wikipedia pages (Zittrain, 2008)
  7. Join or volunteer for a digital rights group to help out with campaigns
  8. Guarantee greater state transparency regarding the scope and use of communications surveillance powers and techniques (International Principles on the Application of Human Rights to Communications Surveillance, 2013)
  9. Build, develop, foster and sustain international multi-stakeholder alliances, institutions, bodies, fora and treaties for issues around Internet governance (Kapur, 2005)
  10. Protect the freedom to innovate and create without permission (Declaration of Internet Freedom, 2012)
  11. …?
  12. …?
  13. …?
  14. …?
  15. …?

What else could be done to keep the Social Layer open?

*Note: unregistered edit access to this page has been suspended as of August 2014 due to spam attacks on the page. To make edits to the page, please request access as a registered user via the comments section. Thanks.

Back to Top

Back to Layers Home

social_layer.txt · Last modified: 2018/02/16 12:46 (external edit)